Dr Ismail Aby Jamal

Dr Ismail Aby Jamal
Born in Batu 10, Kg Lubok Bandan, Jementah, Segamat, Johor

Sunday, February 13, 2011

Leadership & Team management

Leadership & Team management:


Today's effective leaders must have the capability and confidence to build and develop focused and motivated teams that deliver outstanding operational performance in line with the strategic goals of the

organization. This course highlights the processes and techniques leaders have at their disposal to develop their effectiveness and maintain top team performance. ‘Leadership’ and ‘Team Management’ are two commonly used words in today’s organizations. The course derives its roots from the basics of organizational management. In order to build a strong footing for learning of the concepts of leadership and team management, we need to understand the concepts of organization.

What is an Organization?

An organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose, goals e.g.

hospital, profit or non-profit organization, hotels etc.

A. Organizations share three common characteristics:

(1) each has a distinct purpose;

(2) each is composed of people; and

(3) each develops some deliberate structure so members can do their

work. Another way to look into this is …..

B. Although these characteristics are important in defining what an organization is, the concept of an

organization is changing. These differences include: flexible work arrangements, employee work

teams, open communication systems, and supplier alliances. Organizations are becoming more

open, flexible, and responsive to changes.

C. Organizations are changing because the world around them has changed and is continuing to change. These societal, economic, global, and technological changes have created an environment in which successful organizations must embrace new ways of getting their work done.

D. Organizations are working in a dynamic environment and are responsible to different stake holders which can be employees, customers, suppliers, Competitors, Government etc.



Challenges:

Organizations are subject to different challenges. These challenges may be in the form of new trends in the business, changing in the working environment, or technology etc. Every organization has some social entities, has some goals for achieving desired outcomes, and for

achieving these goals, organization has specific structures and most important is to link with the external environment. They are not operating in isolation but in a dynamic environment. The most important entity in any organization is the people, the employees of the organization, who make the organization different from the other organizations. The people of the organization are very important and they work in the organization as different groups/teams e.g. admin, finance, marketing, Human

resources, technical etc.



Change in the organization:

Change is the true reality of today’s organization. With out change no organization can survive in this

competitive environment.



Organizational change is defined as any alteration of people, structure, or technology in an

organization. Instead of trying to eliminate change, managers/leaders must realize that change is always

present and that they should seek ways to manage change successfully.



Forces for Change:

Both external and internal forces create the need for change.

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A. External forces creating the need for change come from various sources:

1. The marketplace

2. Government laws and regulations

3. Technology

4. Labor markets

5. The economy

B. Internal forces creating change usually originate from the internal operations of the

organization or from the impact of external changes. These internal forces include:

1. Changes in strategy

2. Changes in the workforce

3. New equipment

4. Changes in employee attitudes

Following are the difference between the traditional and new organizations.



Organizational Performance:

The organizational performance is judge by their profit, effectiveness and efficiency.

– Productivity

�� An overall measure of the quantity and quality of work performance with

resource utilization taken into account.

– Performance effectiveness

�� An output measure of task or goal accomplishment.

– Performance efficiency

�� An input measure of the resource costs associated with goal accomplishment.



The Changing Organization

Traditional

__ Stable

__ Inflexible

__ Job-focused

__ Work is defined by job

positions

__ Individual-oriented

__ Permanent jobs

__ Command-oriented

__ Managers always make

decisions

__ Rule-oriented

__ Relatively homogeneous

workforce

__ Workdays defined

__ Hierarchical relationships

__ Work at organizational facility

during specific hours

New Organization

__ Dynamic

__ Flexible

__ Skills-focused

__ Work is defined in terms of tasks to

be done

__ Team-oriented

__ Temporary jobs

__ Involvement-oriented

__ Employees participate in decision

making

__ Customer-oriented

__ Diverse workforce

__ Workdays have no time boundaries

__ Lateral and networked relationships

__ Work anywhere, anytime

Note: Most of the characteristics of the new

organization are the right requisites for the

managers to emerge as organizational leaders.





Value creation:

Today, value creation is very important notion of an organization by adding some values. What is value added? It is the relationship between the input & output by using people and get maximum out put. Value is created when an organizational operation add a value to the organization output.

Critical Skills for Success in the New Work Place:

Excellence: You need to be excellent in any way what ever you are doing and excellent work is done through excellent team of people.



Networking: Today’s success is the networking of organization, networking with the peoples and especially with the stakeholders and people who matter.



Entrepreneurship: For Managers/Leaders to be successful skills of entrepreneurship are very critical. In this competitive world, an organization can only survive with good ideas, creativity, innovation and

risk taking.



Technology: Technology is the back bone of any organization. Each operation depends now on technology. For this purpose organizations are paying a huge cost. Keeping yourself up-to-date with technology is also very important. Decisions of managers/leaders to chose relevant technology for different operations is very critical.



Changing Technology

a. Competitive factors or new innovations often require introduction of

new equipment, tools, or operating methods.

b. Automation is a technological change that replaces certain tasks done

by people with machines.

c. Computerization has probably been the most visible technological

change in recent years.



Marketing: For surviving in this competitive environment one should have wonderful ideas. Marketing

is also becoming the critical factor in the success of organizations.

Marketing is “getting the right products to the right people at the right price and at the right time

place with the right promotion.”



Workplace Changes:

– Belief in human capital

– Demise of “command-and-control”

– Emphasis on teamwork

– Preeminence of technology

– Embrace of networking

– New workforce expectations

– Concern for work-life balance

– Focus on speed



New workplace:

In this era, a highly competitive global economy has created unparalleled opportunities and

unprecedented uncertainties and smart people and smart organizations create their own futures by

applying new ideas, innovation and adopting continuous change. Companies with a future are

committed to people because people are the assets. Also Companies with a future have high

performance expectations and provide supportive work environments. High performing companies

gain extraordinary results from people. So in this situation smart people and smart organizations

create their own futures and companies are more committed to people as they are the key to successes and also providing the supportive & congenial working environment to them.



What is the Role of Management?

Management is more concern about building working relationship with others, help the team members to develop the skills for better performance, providing help to develop team work among them and providing them with a conducive/quality environment for performance and satisfaction. In this

connection, management should know that each individual is a value-added worker and if they are satisfied and motivated, organization can achieve their goals efficiently and effectively.



Competence for Managerial Success:

For a manager/leader to be successful; following competencies are

required.

– He must be good communicator

– He should understand Teamwork and foster it among his

team members

– Understand the concepts of Self-management

– Quality of a good leader is very essential

– Critical thinking

– Professionalism

– Crises management

– Global management skills



Importance for Innovation & Change:

In today’s dynamic workplace, managers can be sure that one thing will remain very important—



change. In order to compete successfully, managers must encourage creativity and innovation among all of the employees in their organization.

High performing managers …

–Build working relationships with others.

–Help others develop their skills and

performance competencies.

–Foster teamwork.

–Create a work environment that is performance-driven and provides

satisfaction for workers.

FOCUSING ON PEOPLE: THE KEY TO SUCCESS



It is a common saying in today’s organizations that the success depends on people. The ‘people’ of course are the organizational team members and stake holders. Focusing on the right individuals and stakeholders is important for the success of any organization.

Today our main focus will be on the people; an actor in organization, the key resources for the success of any organization. Every organization has some objectives, goals, mission& vision. For achieving these goals & mission, they use different inputs to get desire outputs. The people in different department/position in the organization are the key actors to meet the organizational goals. Only these people can make difference when you compare your organization with the other organization. In today’s environment, getting the latest technology is not a big deal. Even arranging finance is not a problem, if you have a good idea/project. The biggest problem will be to attract/find and retain right people. Any organization can make a difference provided they have right people and organization is managing them well. But it is nor so simple. People and organizations are so complex and remember

that every person is different from one and other. So managers/leaders must understand the people, their behavior & situation.

One should have target to engage good team to achieve the organizational goals. And keep in mind that good team are only build with a good leadership. Leader is one who motivates the employee and aligns

them towards achieving the goals in a better way. Research tells us that success comes from putting leadership, people, value, goals, relationship, culture and community first.



People in the Process

People are the most important asset of an organization. The basic task of a manager is to be people oriented. Poor people management is an important contributor to any failure of organization. It is need of today’s organization to convert the organization from machine based and economically driven paradigm to more people driven, community-based and values-driven. And it will be only done through people working in the organization as a cohesive team.



Importance of HR and Managers

Some organizations treat the employees as cost. Basically these organizations are dying organization. We know that employees are the asset and high performing organizations treat people as valuable

strategic assets. So managers/leaders must ensure that people are treated as strategic assets.



Human Capital

Organizations trade in product, knowledge, service, innovation, and relationships. All these things are carried out by people. All organizations use different resources like land, machines, technology, finance, people etc. But the important resources any organization can depend is the human Resource and they is the typical human capital organization can be prod off.

Why a Human Capital Environment?

People are the capital of an organization and create difference with knowledge, creativity and relationship. All this is done by the people. So what does it means? It means “people” must be managed/treated as asset, invest on them and protect them, and not to treat tem as cost. Because human are the unique form of capital.



What is Important?

The direction of the employees is also important and set the state of mind towards work. It is also the responsibility of manager/leaders to set the focus of employee in work and engage them with some creative work and motivate them to achieve organization goals. Also create the sense of importance to

adopt change.





Developing and Sustaining A World-class Workforce

_ Increasingly Diverse Workforce

– Diversity will allow us to compete and win locally and globally. Diversity in

workplace is very important and brings synergy in the organization. Team members with different backgrounds, with different skill sets and different exposures are very critical and have positive impact.

_ The Changing Nature of Work

– Economy base has moved from manufacturing to services. Keeping in view the changing landscape of the world business, organizations have started thinking and shifting from manufacturing to services orientation.

– Job flexibility for employees. With the changing work environment, flexibility in the job is increasing. Organizations are more concerned about out put and delivery rather than time spent by the workers and more flex scheduling is becoming common.

– Growth of outsourcing is yet another trend. Organizations are going for outsourcing most of the secondary tasks rather than doing themselves to improve effectiveness and efficiency.

_ The New Employer-Employee Partnership

– Employees can not expect long-term employment

– Employers thus can not expect corresponding loyalty

– Employers trying to build a new kind of relationship: an employer-employee

partnership



About the course

The course is designed to develop the understanding & knowledge of “the Leadership and Team Management” concepts and the skill sets necessary for performing the team leader functions in today’s dynamic and competitive organizations. The course will be divided into two main

components, the Leadership and Team dynamics. In the first part the main focus will be on Leader, Followers and situation to understand the concept of leadership and in the second half of the course we will try to understand the team dynamics.

LEADERSHIP

Concept of Leadership is very important in organizations because leaders are the ones who make things happen. Without leaders, an organization would find it difficult to get things done. Leaders mostly help

others to learn – just as a coach would help players play instead of playing himself. This lecture introduces students to the concept of leadership and leadership effectiveness by providing working definitions and by emphasizing the cultural limitations of the concepts. It presents several cultural models that are used throughout the text to explain cross-cultural difference in leadership. There is no universally agreeable definition of leadership. Just go and type “leadership” on Google and you can

find more than 186,000,000 different pages of reference on web. It involves influencing attitudes, behaviors, beliefs and feelings of people and believes to be an important topic.

Peter Drucker the guru of Management defines Leadership as “The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers."

While John C Maxwell defines "leadership is influence - nothing more, nothing less." According to John W. Gardner Leadership is “the process of persuasion and example by which an individual (or leadership team) induces a group to take action that is in accord with the leader’s purpose, or the shared purposes of all.”



Remember Leadership is a process and not a position.

This important process has three important components/ingredients. 1) Leader, 2) Followers and 3) Situation. These three components play very

important role on the process of leadership.



Leaders are those persons who are able to influence others and who possess managerial authority.



Leadership, then, is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. Trust is the foundation of leadership. Leaders develop an environment of trust where the organizational members tend to establish a follower-ship with the leader.



Who is a leader?

A leader is defined as any person who influences individuals and groups/teams within an organization, helps them in the establishment of goals, and guides them toward achievement of those goals, thereby allowing them to be effective.



Characteristics of Successful Leaders Effective and successful leaders have certain characteristics. They are good communicators, they motivate others (team members), they are good team builders, solve problems of others and of organizations, they are good listeners and resolve conflicts, anticipate change and mange it within team and organizations, they encourage risk taking by their team members and also to promote the creativities. If you study the life of successful leaders, you can find them a challenger of the process, they inspire a shared vision, enable others to act, they model the way by showing the path, encourage the followers,

act as change agent and take followers to the destination.



Similarly, we also discussed leaders of corporate sector who created impression in this world.

1. Bill Gates, co-founder of Microsoft

2. Sam Walton, former CEO of Wal-Mart

3. Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric

4. Lee Iacocca, former CEO of Chrysler

5. Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple

6. Walter E. Disney Walt Disney

7. Henry Ford Ford Motor

8. William C. Procter Procter & Gamble

9. Asa G. Candler Coca-Cola

10. Michael Dell, founder of Dell Computer

11. Andy Grove, former CEO of Intel

12. Ted Turner, founder of CNN

13. Jeff Bezos, founder of Amazon.com

14. Phil Knight, CEO of Nike

15. Lou Gerstner, former CEO of IBM

16. Robert W. Johnson Jr. Johnson & Johnson

Think of someone in your life whom you would consider as “Leader”.

What are the qualities of character that this person has? I try to enlist few important characters that person “leader” may have..

Are we born with these qualities or are they learned behaviors? To some degree we have all of them --

some more so than others. We must choose and work to strengthen these qualities in ourselves if we

are to be effective leaders.

Do we really need leaders? Consider how life would be different without leadership in e.g. Families,

Education, Businesses, Service Associations, Teams, Countries and World.



Why Study Leadership?

_ Understanding leadership helps organizations:

– To select the right people for leadership positions

– To train people in leadership positions to improve to improve their performance

_ Who benefits?

Leaders, followers, organizations and society as a whole.

• Honest, trustworthy

• Good role model

• Caring

• Committed

• Good listener

• Treats people with respect

• Positive, enthusiastic

• Risk taker

• Planner

• Decision Maker

• Consistent

• Open

• Accountable

• Transparent

• Responsible

• Sensitive

• Connected to the Community

• Knowledge

• Wisdom

• Social Skills

LEADERSHIP (CONTD.)

We will continue discussing the concepts of leadership. If you check dictionary for definition of Lead,

Leader and Leadership you will find the following answers.



Dictionary Definitions:-

_ Lead:

“To guide, steer, pilot, point, or show the way”

“To cause someone to do something”

_ Leader:

“One who leads”

“Person in control”

_ Leadership:

“The quality notable in leaders”

“Set of characteristics that make a good leader”

Leaders are Effective When?

Leaders’ effectiveness depends on the achievements of group/team goals, when internal processes are

smooth and group/team is working as a cohesive team. Effectiveness can also be seen when team/group

adapt to external forces. An organization achieves its goals when the leaders of an organization will be

more effective. A leader is effective when team/group is effective and vice versa. Leader and followers

are both important and depend on each other for effectiveness.

Can a leader fail? Yes, some time we see leaders who are not effective or not-good do fail in achieving

their goals.



Characteristics of Leaders Who Fail

• Rude and unapproachable: if the leader will act rudely and is unapproachable to employee.

He will fail to achieve organizational goals because due to his/her this behavior participative

environment can not created within organization.

• Cold and arrogant: if the leader will be proud of himself, no one wants to work with him. And

also if he or she has no feeling about others, nobody will be agreeing to work with this type of

arrogant person.

• Untrustworthy: without trust, leaders can not perform well in the organization.

Teams/Groups/Organizations always grow when they have trust on each others and a

trustworthy leader is very essential for the success of a team. If leader is untrustworthy, the

probability of his/her failure will be high.

• Self-centered and political: if the leader will create or involve in political environment in the

organization, he/she will lose the ground because politics can not work in the organization

especially if leader is involved in political activities. Especially when a leader is self centered

and interested only in personal benefits the result will be a mess and failure and out put will be

zero.

• Poor performers: Team always depends on its leader. Leader is mentor, role model, coach

and sets the example for others. So if the leader of team will be poor performer, team can not

achieve the goals.

• Unable to delegate: In this competitive environment of participations, the leader must

delegate the power and authority to downwards for achieving the organizational goals in more

efficient and effective manner. So if the leader will not delegate the power and authority to

others or his subordinates, he will lose and that will be the failure of leader.

So are they “bad” or

“in-effective” Leader?

What do we mean by “bad” … if a person (leader) is Corrupt, Evil, Brutal, Disrespectful,

Incompetent, Irresponsible, Destructive Unethical, Mean, Dangerous, Immoral or Ineffective than

one can say he/she is a bad leader.



Bad leadership defined …

“Ineffective leadership is the inability to build and maintain a group that performs well relative

to its competition.” - Robert Hogan –



Causes of bad leadership

There are two key sources which are Traits and character.

“Leaders behave badly because of who they are and what they want.”

– Barbara Kellerman -

Leadership is not automatic it must be earned through trust, confidence, competence, consistency,

integrity, and vision



Leadership Managerial Roles

In this competitive environment the style of management has also changed. Now the organizations are working in more competitive environment, more flat structures, depends on more functional teams lead by a leader.



Managerial Roles

Leaders are managers too but not necessary that all managers are leaders. Leaders need to play managerial role too. Management roles refer to specific categories of managerial behavior.



a. Interpersonal roles included figurehead, leadership, and liaison activities.

_ Figurehead

When they represent the organization, signing official document, informally talking to people and attending out side meetings, presiding the meetings and ceremonial events etc

they are playing the role of figurehead.

• Insensitive, abrasive, bullying style

• Cold, aloof, arrogant

• Betrayal of personal trust

• Overly ambitious

• Specific performance problems

• Micro-managing—does not build a team

• Unable to select good subordinates

Why Leaders Fail?

Bad leadership defined …

“Bad leadership falls into two

categories: bad as in ineffective and

bad as in unethical. Ineffective

leadership fails to produce the

desired change while unethical

leadership fails to distinguish between

right and wrong.”

- Barbara Kellerman -

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_ Leader

Leader is responsible for giving instruction, coaching, hiring, training, motivating, and

evaluating performance etc and these are responsibility of a leader.

_ Liaison

When interacting with people outside their organization, attending professional meetings,

serving on committees, visiting and meeting people to keep in touch, all these role are kind

of liaison on behalf of his/her team or organization.



b. Informational roles included monitoring, disseminating, and spokesperson

activities.

Monitor

Gather information, reading reports, publication etc, talking to others in meeting inside or

outside the organization, observing etc

_ Disseminator

They send information, instruction, orally or written and play the role of disseminator.

_ Spokesperson

Provide information outside the organization, answering queries, letters, reporting

information to govt. etc.



c. Decisional roles included those of entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and

negotiator.

_ Entrepreneur

Good leaders are always famous for innovation and creativity. When innovate and initiate

improvement (through monitor), developing new ideas, new product & service, procedures,

tools etc

_ Disturbance handler

Taking Corrective action during crises, uncertainty, breakdown, labor issues, strike,

material crises, or any others

_ Resource allocator

Allocating and distribution of resources (financial, space, equipment, material, HR etc)

_ Negotiators

They represent organization at different levels, with competitors, customers, clients,

employees, Govt etc

Leadership and management are closely related but with distinguishable functions. As discussed earlier,

leaders are managers but not necessary that all managers are leaders. There are distinct differences

among them if we compare a leader from a manager.



Leaders Vs Managers

Leaders Managers

– Innovate

– Develop

– Inspire

– Take the long-term view

– Ask what and why

– Originate

– Challenge the status quo.

– Do the right things

_ Administer

_ Maintain

_ Control

_ Have a short-term view

_ Ask how and when

_ Imitate

_ Accept the status quo

_ Do things right

MANAGERS VS LEADERS

Continuing from previous lecture, we will continue focus on the important difference between mangers and Leaders. As said earlier, leaders are manger too but not necessary that all managers may be leaders.



Difference between Leaders and Managers

Arguments about the difference between leadership and management are presented. Leaders are considered to be visionary and future-oriented, whereas managers focus on day-to-day routine activities. The section concludes that effective managers often perform many of the duties and

activities ascribed to leaders thereby making the distinction between the two concepts somewhat unnecessary

Leaders Managers

Vision oriented: the leaders are vision

oriented and think about future.



Process oriented: managers always think

about process that how the organization

works in efficient manner.



Protects staff: leaders always protect their

staff and motivate them towards

achievement of organizational goals.



Protects self: Managers always protect

himself.



Approaches decisions actively: the

leaders are decision makers and do not

hesitate to take decisions in any respect.



Approaches decisions cautiously:

Managers always depends on his superiors

and others to take decisions.

Staff oriented: leaders are staff oriented.



Career oriented: managers always think

about his career that how he/she moves up

or develop his/her career.



Listens actively: leaders always involve

his staff in decision making and listen

every body and get the suggestions from

employees seriously.



Listens selectively: managers always listen

and involve selective staff/employees

during decision making.



Deals with conflict: leader always deal

with conflict as they are critical analyst in

the positive way.



Avoids conflict: Managers always avoids

being involved in conflicts.



Trusted: leaders always trust on his

employees/staff and vice versa.



Unclear regarding trust: he is unclear

regarding trust.

These obvious differences between leaders and managers also affect the processes in the organizations.



Difference between leadership and management:

Leadership Management

Set overall & future direction: they set

the overall organization direction and give

the vision.



Set day-day direction: Mangers sets day

by day direction to organization as per

circumstances.



Focuses on results: A leader always

focuses on out put.



Focuses on processes: Managers always

focuses on processes that how to gets the

maximum out put by utilization of

minimum resources through reducing in

processes of the organization.



Mostly external: leaders mostly keep the

close eyes on external environment.



Mostly internal: Managers always keep

the close eyes on internal environment.





Concern=effectiveness: his concern on

effectiveness



Concern=efficiency: his concern on

efficiency



Stakeholder focused: Leaders focused on

stake holder’s interest and strive for the

satisfactions of stakeholders.



Personnel focused: Here the focus is

personal and not on the stakeholders.



Customer needs/capacities: thinks about

customers demand



Worker needs/capacities: thinks about

organization capacity for customers

demand



Embodies mission/vision: sets the mission

and vision



Embodies goals/objectives: sets the goals

and objectives to achieve the mission.



Gets more resources: gets more recourse

to accomplish the mission. They always

try to look for other opportunities.



Manages resources: a manager always

manages the resources.



Secures technologies: they protect the

technologies. Always keep their eyes open

and try to secure new technologies

essential to create competitive advantages.



Applies technologies: managers always

apply technologies available to them and

will not strive for change.



Seeks to create needed change: they

always seek to create the needed change

and believe on “Change as the environment

change”.



Seek stability/Manage change:

management will try to manage the change

and prefer to maintain the stability in the

organization.



Create teams’ esp. top teams: Leadership

is always focused on creating a team

especially top performing team. Leader

role is act as a coach and convert individual

working into teams.

Manage teamwork: Management focus is

to get things done from people/team and

they will try for this.

So, after the detail discussion on difference between leadership and management, we can conclude that

in Management we have an authority relationship while leadership is a multidirectional influence

relationship.

“Jack Welch (Former CEO of GE) says; “…dangerous to call someone a manager” because..

“A manager…” Controls rather than facilitates, Complicates rather than simplifies, Acts more like a

governor than an accelerator



Characteristics:

1. Personal Characteristics:

A managerial culture emphasizes rationality and control, whether his or her energies are directed

towards goals, resources, organization structure. The manager ask, ”What problems need to be

solved, and what are the best ways to achieve results, so people will continue to contribute to this

organization. Management is keeping themselves away from emotions and focus mainly on

organization, compliances. They seem to know the procedure and policies required to accomplish

the organization routine tasks. From this prospective leadership is more practical and emotionally

connected with employees and also with environment. Leadership is more open minded and listen

different ideas, ready for change and not only focusing present objectives of the organization but

also keep their focus on future too. They are honest with themselves, with followers and with others

too. With this honesty and concern with the welfare of others they build trust and that is very

essential for leadership process.

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2. Relationships:

Leadership always focuses on people, inspire them and develop them to achieve the organizational

mission. They use personality powers to influence others and act as coach and facilitators for

followers. With their charismatic personality leaders create a dynamic environment within the

organization. They also encourage the creativity and focuses on the dynamic environment changes.

While management focuses on objective and are mainly concern with outputs, reports and

mechanics of the organizations. To influence others, management depends on the position powers

and use control rather than motivation. Risk taking is not encouraged and they suppress creativity in

the organization.





3. Providing Direction:

Leadership always focuses on vision. Leadership reshapes the organizational culture, motivates the

employees, and believes on long term focus. Whether management depends on detailed

plan/schedule, allocation of resources, improve the efficiency and focuses ob short term goals.



4. Grouping

Leadership always creates the culture of communication and listen each others, help others and

facilitate others. They also reduce the boundaries and create the teamwork in organization. Whereas

management believe in line and staff management, believe on organization, staff and structure,

creates boundaries and focuses on direct and control. Provide solution and guidelines in the

organization.



5. Outcomes

Leadership creates the culture of change and tries to implement change in response to the changing

environment for greatest outcome. Leadership challenges the status quo and adopts the change.

Believe on effectiveness and efficiency. While management are concern about stability, are more

predictable and focus on short term expectations. Believe on day to day outcome and not taking any

risk.



What “Followers” Expect

Traits desired in a leader are like Integrity, Consistency, Listen and discern needs, Open-minded,

Honest w/themselves; Inspire trust, Calm, Stays focused while handling a volatile situation etc.



Effective Leadership:

Trust

Trust among leader and followers is the key to success of this leadership process. A trust between the

leader and followers is very essential. When trust exists, individuals are more likely to enter into the

relationships necessary for goal attainment.



Trust: The Foundation of Leadership

Leader’s integrity, competency, consistency, loyalty and openness are the key ingredients to build trust.



A Nurturing Climate

All members of the organization must be able to work in a climate that is free of fear, one that fosters

creativity and rewarding the achievements. This nurturing climate is also essential for proper leadership

process and for the success of a team/group or organization and for the effectiveness of a leader..



Freedom of Expression

All employees must be able to talk with one another, share ideas, critique proposals, view issues

critically, and obtain information that assists them in being effective and creative. This will only be

achieved through creation of participative culture in the organization and freedom to express on

procedures, policies etc. Leader needs to create culture that allows freedom of expression.

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Respect for Diversity

In this competitive environment of business, organization are dealing with diversify culture.

Organizations are trying to capitalize this diversity in the organization. Diversity of workforce has huge

benefit and yes some cost too. In order to make a commitment to the attainment of a particular goal by

capitalizing diversity in the organization/team, they need to respect the diversity and let all people

coming from different background to feel valued, respected, and appreciated.



Free and Open for Creativity

A leader must create an environment where every one can share his/her ideas and create the awareness

that individuals must feel free to seek new approaches, take independent decision and take risks. This

will be only done through a congenial environment in the organization, where every one feels free to

share his/her idea and are open for creativity.



Change Agent

The leader may act as a change agent, which is an individual who acts as a catalyst and leads the change

process. Change is the true reality of the organization. In this competitive business environment,

without responding the change no one can survive. “Change as the environment change”.



What Followers Want from leader and from their colleagues?

Leaders to be Colleagues to be

Honest Honest

Forward-Thinking Cooperative

Inspiring Dependable

Competent Dependable

For proper leadership process, all three components of this process, the leader, followers and the

situation are very important.

FOLLOWER-SHIP

We will still discuss the topic of leader vs. mangers in the start of this lecture and than shift to next

topic the followers.

Leadership is important in organizations because leaders are the ones who make things happen.

Organizations are shifting from conventional management to leadership. In this competitive

environment now with simple routine management and simple manager, survival of organization is

becoming difficult. Unless you have a vision, know the people and human behavior aspects, understand

team dynamics and motivation, understand the trust and responding change, challenging the status quo

and believe on sharing the power and participative management, survival of a manger or leader will be

difficult. All these characteristics are mostly present in leaders but not in mangers. So today’s

organization needs more leaders rather than managers. But both are important. We need leaders who are

good mangers too.

Without leaders, an organization would find it difficult to get things done. Bottom line is organization

needs to focus on people and try to identify and separate leaders from followers and accordingly train

and develop both important resources an organization can have i.e. “the People”. A very famous

Chinese saying is;

“If you want one year of prosperity, grow grain.

If you want 10 years of prosperity, grow trees.

If you want 100 years of prosperity, grow people.

— Chinese proverb

MANAGERS VERSUS LEADERS: We are still in the same discussion of manager vs leader to give

more emphasizes on leaders and explain why this is becoming more and more important. Let me put

these distinctions between managers and leaders in a different way.

Mangers use authority to get things from his people and drive them while leader prepare them and act

as a coach for the job done. Manger influence other though the legitimate authority vested on him/her

due to position and other obeys him/her due to that position. While leaders influence through their

goodwill and personality. It doesn’t mean they have no legitimate power. They do have that power but

they believe on the power of team, synergy and participative management.

Mangers inspire fear and use coercive power while leaders inspire enthusiasm and create excitement

among team members.

_ The Manager knows how it is done and they get others to fallow the set procedures for the

accomplishment of any job.

_ The Leader shows how it is done. They always try to create a different. They will challenge the

process for business process re-engineering to improve the system and for efficiency.

_ The Manager says "Go". The give orders and sit back to see others deliver.

_ The Leader says "Let's Go”. They take other along and set example. This approach increases

the moral of all team members and together they achieve more and deliver more.

_ The Manager says "I". Managers are mostly self centred and mainly concern about themselves.

_ The Leader says "We". Leaders believe on team work and mainly concerned about others and

always take team as a whole.

_ The Manager fixes the blame for the breakdown. If some thing went wrong, managers try to

find out the culprit and fix the responsibility.

_ The Leader fixes the breakdown. In case of leadership, if this situation arrives, leaders will try

to figure out the causes of any breakdown and also try to fix this breakdown rather than just

fixing responsibility.

17

Similarly we can also discuss other distinctions between leaders and managers. But important thing

is we need good leaders with proper management capabilities. As said earlier” all leaders are

managers but not all managers are leaders”

So, we need both Leader and Manager and in a way for the success of any organization leading and

managing both required. In the given figure, it is clearly shown that both leader and manger are needed

Leading & Managing processes results satisfied stakeholders.

Follower-ship

Let’s shift to second important component of leadership process, the Followers. We know that

leadership is a function of three elements.



Importance of Followers: Leaders always depend on their followers. Followers’ actions/attitudes

influence their leader and the process of leadership also. Performance of leaders & followers are

depended upon one another.



Follower Traits That Influence the Leadership Process: As leaders and followers are depending

each others for performance and out come, it is very important to understand followers and their traits

that influence this leadership process.

• Values

• Norms

• Cohesiveness,

• Expectations

• Personality

• Maturity

• Competency levels

• Motivation

• Number of followers

• Trust and confidence

Qualities of effective followers are same ones we want in leaders because both are important for the

output/performance of teams/organizations.



Follower-ship Style: There are four follower-ship styles;

1. Pragmatic follower: Positive role of these types of followers are realistic and play their role

according to rules and regulation or as per legitimate powers. In negative side, they also play

political games in the organization and carries out assignments with middling enthusiasm. They

believe that staying in the rules is important also avoid the uncertainties and instability.

2. Alienated follower: These types of followers always think about themselves, but some time

play a very important role as critics within the team. Because this will help to improve the

decisions. We can say that these types of people are the whistle blowers. They can also create

problem for team. They do not work as team member and believes that their leader does not

fully recognize or utilize their talents

3. Conventional follower: These types of followers easily accept the assignment and play as a

team member and try to minimize conflict. They have lack of creativity; they don’t take bold

decisions and not taking risk. They also avoid the conflict and believe that the established

system of the organization is better than outcomes.



4. Passive follower: These types of followers always rely on the leader and seldom challenge the

process and avoid any resistance. They are just spending/passing time and also require an

excessive amount of supervision. They believe that the organization doesn’t want their ideas so

the leader is going to do what he/she wants anyway.

18

5. Exemplary follower: These types of followers contribute above and beyond the expectation.

They always try to add value in organization in any form. They are creative and risk takers.

They are highly idealistic and can suffer disappointed and even go in stress and ultimately

reach to burnout if not given importance and challenging environment. They believe that their

contribution for the organization is always essential. So they always work for organization with

commitments and devotion.



How Exemplary Followers Add Value: the exemplary followers are always focus on the goal,

contribute to the growth of other team members, always help to keep the team on track and always take

the initiative to increase their value to the organization.

- Think of someone you know in

your life who is a good leader

and write down why you think

they are a good leader…

LEADERSHIP PROCESS

As you are aware, leadership is a process and not a position. Basic components of leadership include leader,

followers and situation. A leader is different from other leaders due to his/her personality, skill set,

exposures, characteristics, expertise, etc. Followers also vary on similar personal trait basis, while situation

compromise of particular environment, kind of task, pressure and other situational factors. These all

components play very important role in leadership process. Same leader with different followers and

situation can have different effect.

Responsibilities of Exemplary Followers:

When all components of this leadership process are in line with

each others and working in collaboration, the results are effectiveness of outcome. Especially the leader and followers are dynamic inputs and play very important role is the outcome. There are some basic responsibilities from exemplary followers.

_ Support the leader’s decisions: Followers need to support leader’s decisions. This is true when

leader and followers work like a team and decisions are taken by participative process. Need for

dialogue before important decisions are very important. Once a decision is taken by leader than it

becomes every body’s decision. Every body needs to own and support these decisions.

_ Challenge the leader: For a group to be effective and dynamic, team member also challenge the

process, procedures and decisions. They do differ on policies, procedures etc but not on

personalities. This is good sign for dynamic groups/teams. The follower’s also challenge the leader

on different issues with in the group/team. They challenge the leader on decisions and make sure

that all the work is going in the right direction and towards achievement of goals. This challenging

is for the improvement of decision making and avoiding the group think.

_ Encourage the leader: The followers always encourage the leaders. Provide full support for

his/her creative ideas. They also support him/her when he/she is under some pressure/stress. Also

support the leader in bad times and encourage him/her to make better decisions.

_ Defend the leader: The followers also defend their leader in any situation or at the time of needs.

They also defend his/her action, decisions and policies for the achievements of organizational

goals.



Exemplary Followers Expect from Leaders:

Followers also have certain expectations from leaders. To be followers, people expect certain characteristics in their leaders. They must be;

_ Honest: Followers expect leader’s to be an honest person so that he or she can build trusts.

Honesty provide basis for trust building.

_ Forward-looking: Leader must be a visionary so that he/she can predict the future of the

organization. Anticipate changes and be proactive rather than reactive. Vision then is based on

two components that leaders also need: creativity and intellectual drive.

_ Inspiring: A leader should have an inspiring personality. Inspiring for development, inspiring

for better and better.

_ Competent: A leader should be a competent enough to perform his/her duties and provide the

directions to the team members. They need to be their when others are stuck and need answers.

_ Fair-minded: A leader with fair mind and unbiased personality is always known as a better

leader. For good leader, every member of the team is equal for him/her. The difference, if any,

is due to performance and commitment with team mission.

• Work to increase the variety and complexity of assignments

they receive

• Seek to enhance their skill sets

• Share the credit

• Never undermine their authority

• Mentor followers who hope to assume larger leadership

roles

• Encourage and enhance dialogue

• Keep their confidences

• Empower them

• Acknowledge their value, both publicly and privately

• Reward them in ways they find meaningful

• Trust your followers

Let us discuss these strategies one by one;

_ Work to increase the variety and complexity of assignments they receive: As leader you

have to assign the some critical task so that he or she will be able to generate some creative or

productive output. Diverse work experience is always good and more expose leader is with

different and complex environments/assignment the more mature will merge in personality.

Same is true for followers. Followers can be given chances through job rotation and giving

them complex and challenging tasks.

_ Seek to enhance their skill sets: Leader provides the chance to enhance their skills through

training. Training and development is a continue process and leaders always try to enhance skill

sets of their employees.

_ Share the credit: Good leaders always share the credit of achievement. They share with the

followers and give credit to their team members. This approach not only creates trust but also

boosts moral of team members and also act as motivational factor.

_ Never undermine their authority: As leader you should not demoralize them or challenge

their authority. Followers are also very important as leaders themselves.

_ Mentor followers who hope to assume larger leadership roles: The followers are always

looking for the role model within the group and try to copy him in different manner. Leader’s

need to act as mentor for followers and build them as leaders for the future.

_ Encourage and enhance dialogue: A leader should encourage the followers to keep the

communication channels open and enhance the dialogue for batter group decision and better

working environment.

_ Keep their confidences: Leader should take the followers in confidence for taking any

decision so that they feel themselves more confident. They should be encouraged to take risks.

_ Empower them: a leader should empower his/her followers so that they will feel more open

and do not hesitate to take any decision. By taking risk, they will learn and bring creativity.

Empowerment is required for quick decisions by those people who are most knowledgeable

about the issues. The reality that organizational downsizing has left managers with larger spans

of control and in order to cope, managers are turning to employee empowerment.

_ Acknowledge their value, both publicly and privately: A leader should always recognize the

work done by the follower’s part openly. This will create a motivational culture for other and

ultimately a long run benefit for the organization.

_ Reward them in ways they find meaningful: there should be a reward system within the

group after achieving the goals. It will also create the motivation in the employees. Nothing is

free in the world and we need to understand this while deciding rewards. These rewards should

be meaningful and must be linked with performance.

21

_ Trust your followers: Trust is the belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader. We

have already explained concept of trust. Without trust of followers, leaders can not perform

well in the organization. Leader must have trust on his/her followers.



Empowering Followers:

In today’s dynamic environment, empowering followers/team member is important to boost their moral and

for better decisions. This is also very important for creativity.

A leader must give people (followers/team members) discretion and autonomy and important. Give people

visibility and provide recognition for their efforts. It is the responsibility of leader to build relationships

with team members, connecting them with powerful people for learning and their professional

development.



What Followers Want:

Leader Traits That Influence the Leadership Process:

_ Personality is defined as a combination of psychological traits that describes a person.

Personality of leader play important role.

_ Position is defined that one can influence on the group member or in the organization

_ Experience is defied as an exposure that he or she have in his field of expertise.



Leaders to be Colleagues to be

Honest Honest

Forward-Thinking Cooperative

Inspiring Dependable

Competent Competent

LEADERSHIP PROCESS (CONTD.)

Dear students in lecture number eight our focus is still on leadership process. Let’s start with the

qualities of Leaders.



Qualities of Leaders:

Real leaders have certain qualities which make them different from rest of the team members/followers.

Few of those qualities are given in the following slide.

I will try to explain all these qualities one by one.

Vision: A leader has to have some ideas about his/her organization, about how the future could be

different. A leader requires strong sense of purpose and should be clear in concept of collective Vision

(Organization) and recognizes what must be done and how to makes strategies for the accomplishment

of their vision. Clear concepts about vision can make a leader more focused and effective. Vision about

what is happening, what needs to be done and what is coming in future.



Ability: Leaders must know about his or her Job and keep knowledge updated and have ability

to understand information, formulate strategies, and make the decisions. If leader fails to do all these,

employees do not respect him/her, and ultimately leader loses faith and trust. That will be failure of a

leader. Followers always look toward leaders when making decision, when they are in problem, or

stuck or when things are not working. They will look toward leaders. Even for technical issues, they

will look toward leaders for solution. So a leader must have the ability to handle all such issues.



Enthusiasm:

This is also an important trait of leaders. Leaders always create excitements, which causes others to become interested and willing to accept the challenges. Leaders always generate enthusiasm in followers so that this excitement can trigger the goal oriented actions and ultimately

followers get motivated and involved in the achievement of the organizational goals.



Stability: Stability is another important quality of leaders. Leaders need to be emotionally stable in handling challenges, in decision making and during the time of pressures. During the process of leadership plus and minuses do come and leaders need to face them with courage and unless they have

stability in their personality, this will become very difficult. Leaders should possess objectivity, should not bring personal problems to work and be emotionally stable.

Qualities of Leaders

– Vision

– Ability

– Enthusiasm

– Stability

– Concern for Others

– Self-Confidence

– Persistence

– Vitality

– Charisma

– Integrity

23



Concern for Others:

Leaders must be concerned always for their followers, with their welfares and don’t treat them as machines. It is always the responsibility of the leaders to think about the welfare of

the employees. A leader must have a humble and caring attitude towards employee/followers. So that if he/she always puts the interest of others first, the loyalty will be built, and ultimately the employees will work with more devotion and commitment.



Self-Confidence:

Self confidence is very important quality one should have. For leaders this will become even more important. All we discussed different leaders qualities above, these are all linked

with the self concept. With self confidence, leaders can mange and handle even difficult situations. That

is the trait/quality which is appreciated by all concerns. Successful leaders stay calm and confident and

show confidence in their actions.



Persistence: Determination of a leader is also very important for business success. So, a leader

should have the devotion and commitment for business and continuously motivate the employees for

achieving the organizational goals. The outgoing approach and persistence approach is always paying

and pushing the followers for the accomplishment of goals.



Vitality: Leaders need strength/energy and stamina. Effective leaders are electric, vigorous, active, and

full of life, regardless of age or disability. These qualities energize followers too. To achieve goals,

leaders need stamina, energy, health, and vigor. Same is true for followers.



Charisma:

A Personality Trait. A quality that generates others’ interest and creates followers. To

influence others, charisma plays very important role.



Integrity: The most important quality of leader is honesty, strength of character, and courage. Leaders

need to have strong integrity. So leader must have loyal, honest with his/her work and also with his/her

team too. It will also lead to trust and respect. Honesty, strength of character, and courage will always

lead to trust building, creating loyalty.

What Leaders Can Influence?

Leaders influence others’ behavior, attitude and actions. They influence mostly the work related

attitudes and behaviors of followers. The Importance of a great leader is the development and growth of

followers. Same way Importance of a great follower is the growth of leaders.



The Situation

The element of “the situation “ may be the most ambiguous aspect of the leadership framework because

it can refer to anything form the specific task a group is engaged in all the way to broad situation

contexts.

_ Task

_ Environment

_ Stress



A Brief History of Leadership

Before the 20th century leadership was the exclusive domain of royals or military people. Following

were the focus of leadership during different time frames.



1901-1914:

_ Prosperity

_ Key role of government

_ Leadership emphasis on public officials



1914-1945:

24

_ Two world wars and great depression

_ Greater emphasis on coordination, consistency, strength and stability

_ Use of statutory authorities

_ New talent

_ Promotion by efficiency

_ Relationship with politicians is servant-oriented

_ Organizational context dominates follower relationships



1945-1970s:

_ More statutory authorities and greater international focus and role

_ Indigenous and environment policy

_ Equal opportunity

_ Concerted emphasis on training

_ Educated work force

_ Rotation and exchange began

_ Shift in gender in the Service



1975-2000:

_ Economic transition to cope with economic globalization

_ Privatization, efficiency and microeconomic reform

_ Multiculturalism/Globalization



The Purpose of Leadership in the 21st Century is more economic empowerment and empowerments of followers. More freedoms to make decision and focus on creativity. Globalization, merging of

businesses for sharing of resources, responsive to change and stake holders etc are the purposes of today’s leadership.







LEADERSHIP PROCESS

Dear students in lecture number eight our focus is still on leadership process. Let’s start with the

qualities of Leaders.



Qualities of Leaders:

Real leaders have certain qualities which make them different from rest of the team members/followers.

Few of those qualities are given in the following slide.

I will try to explain all these qualities one by one.

Vision: A leader has to have some ideas about his/her organization, about how the future could be

different. A leader requires strong sense of purpose and should be clear in concept of collective Vision

(Organization) and recognizes what must be done and how to makes strategies for the accomplishment

of their vision. Clear concepts about vision can make a leader more focused and effective. Vision about

what is happening, what needs to be done and what is coming in future.



Ability: Leaders must know about his or her Job and keep knowledge updated and have ability

to understand information, formulate strategies, and make the decisions. If leader fails to do all these,

employees do not respect him/her, and ultimately leader loses faith and trust. That will be failure of a

leader. Followers always look toward leaders when making decision, when they are in problem, or

stuck or when things are not working. They will look toward leaders. Even for technical issues, they

will look toward leaders for solution. So a leader must have the ability to handle all such issues.



Enthusiasm: This is also an important trait of leaders. Leaders always create excitements, which

causes others to become interested and willing to accept the challenges. Leaders always generate

enthusiasm in followers so that this excitement can trigger the goal oriented actions and ultimately

followers get motivated and involved in the achievement of the organizational goals.



Stability: Stability is another important quality of leaders. Leaders need to be emotionally stable in

handling challenges, in decision making and during the time of pressures. During the process of

leadership plus and minuses do come and leaders need to face them with courage and unless they have

stability in their personality, this will become very difficult. Leaders should possess objectivity, should

not bring personal problems to work and be emotionally stable.

Qualities of Leaders

– Vision

– Ability

– Enthusiasm

– Stability

– Concern for Others

– Self-Confidence

– Persistence

– Vitality

– Charisma

– Integrity

23



Concern for Others: Leaders must be concerned always for their followers, with their welfares and

don’t treat them as machines. It is always the responsibility of the leaders to think about the welfare of

the employees. A leader must have a humble and caring attitude towards employee/followers. So that if

he/she always puts the interest of others first, the loyalty will be built, and ultimately the employees will

work with more devotion and commitment.



Self-Confidence: Self confidence is very important quality one should have. For leaders this will

become even more important. All we discussed different leaders qualities above, these are all linked

with the self concept. With self confidence, leaders can mange and handle even difficult situations. That

is the trait/quality which is appreciated by all concerns. Successful leaders stay calm and confident and

show confidence in their actions.



Persistence: Determination of a leader is also very important for business success. So, a leader

should have the devotion and commitment for business and continuously motivate the employees for

achieving the organizational goals. The outgoing approach and persistence approach is always paying

and pushing the followers for the accomplishment of goals.



Vitality: Leaders need strength/energy and stamina. Effective leaders are electric, vigorous, active, and

full of life, regardless of age or disability. These qualities energize followers too. To achieve goals,

leaders need stamina, energy, health, and vigor. Same is true for followers.



Charisma: A Personality Trait. A quality that generates others’ interest and creates followers. To influence others, charisma plays very important role.



Integrity: The most important quality of leader is honesty, strength of character, and courage. Leaders need to have strong integrity. So leader must have loyal, honest with his/her work and also with his/her

team too. It will also lead to trust and respect. Honesty, strength of character, and courage will always

lead to trust building, creating loyalty.

What Leaders Can Influence?

Leaders influence others’ behavior, attitude and actions. They influence mostly the work related attitudes and behaviors of followers. The Importance of a great leader is the development and growth of

followers. Same way Importance of a great follower is the growth of leaders.



The Situation

The element of “the situation “ may be the most ambiguous aspect of the leadership framework because it can refer to anything form the specific task a group is engaged in all the way to broad situation contexts.

_ Task

_ Environment

_ Stress



A Brief History of Leadership

Before the 20th century leadership was the exclusive domain of royals or military people. Following were the focus of leadership during different time frames.



1901-1914:

_ Prosperity

_ Key role of government

_ Leadership emphasis on public officials



1914-1945:

24

_ Two world wars and great depression

_ Greater emphasis on coordination, consistency, strength and stability

_ Use of statutory authorities

_ New talent

_ Promotion by efficiency

_ Relationship with politicians is servant-oriented

_ Organizational context dominates follower relationships



1945-1970s:

_ More statutory authorities and greater international focus and role

_ Indigenous and environment policy

_ Equal opportunity

_ Concerted emphasis on training

_ Educated work force

_ Rotation and exchange began

_ Shift in gender in the Service



1975-2000:

_ Economic transition to cope with economic globalization

_ Privatization, efficiency and microeconomic reform

_ Multiculturalism/Globalization

The Purpose of Leadership in the 21st Century is more economic empowerment and empowerments of

followers. More freedoms to make decision and focus on creativity. Globalization, merging of

businesses for sharing of resources, responsive to change and stake holders etc are the purposes of

today’s leadership.



LEADERSHIP THEORIES/ APPROACHES

Theoretical based: Theories always provided basis for the understanding of different concepts. In this lecture main focus ill be to understand theoretical concepts of Leadership. These theories will also help

us to understand the behaviors and their relationship with the work environment. Let’s discuss first the basic approaches/theories which will help us to understand the other approaches and theories directly related to leaderships.

Theory X and Theory-Y:

1. Theory X According to this theory, employees dislike work, are lazy, seek to avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.

2. Theory Y the assumption is that employees are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.

Theory X assumed that lower-order needs (Maslow’s) dominated individuals, and Theory Y assumed that higher-order needs dominated the individual behaviors.



Hawthorne experiments:

The Hawthorne Studies were, without question, the most important

contribution to the developing organizational behavior. These were series of experiments conducted from 1924 to the early 1930s at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Cicero, Illinois. The studies were initially devised as a scientific management experiment to assess the impact of changes in various physical environment variables on employee productivity. Other experiments looked at redesigning jobs, making changes in workday and workweek length, introducing rest periods, and

introducing individual versus group wage plans. The researchers concluded that social norms or group standards were the key determinants of individual

work behavior. Although not without critics (of procedures, analyses of findings, and the conclusions), the Hawthorne studies did stimulate an interest in human behavior in organizations.



Leadership Theories/ Approaches

The above theoretical backgrounds and other similar studies provided basis to develop leadership approaches/theories.



Early studies were based on two theories:

1. Trait Theories (focuses on leader qualities/traits)

2. Behavior Theories (focuses on leader actions/behavior)

1. Trait Theory/Approach: the basic focus was on the traits of leaders.

Leaders are born with certain traits which make them leaders. Common believes were that “Leaders are born, not made.” and

Leaders possess certain traits that make them leaders

Theories that attempt to isolate characteristics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders.

Attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership have been more successful.

Might be used as a basis for selecting the “right” people to assume formal leadership positions



Some facts/basis about this trait theory is given bellow.

1. Qualities such as intelligence, charisma, decisiveness, enthusiasm, strength, bravery,

integrity, and self-confidence.

2. These responses represent, in essence, trait theories of leadership.

3. If the concept of traits were to prove valid, all leaders would have to possess specific

characteristics.

4. Research efforts at isolating these traits resulted in a number of dead ends.

26

5. Attempts failed to identify a set of traits that would always differentiate leaders.

6. However, attempts to identify traits consistently associated with leadership have been more

successful.

7. Six traits on which leaders are seen to differ from non-leaders include drive, the desire to

lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, and job-relevant knowledge.

8. Explanations based solely on traits ignore situational factors.

9. Possessing the appropriate traits only makes it more likely that an individual will be an

effective leader.

10. He or she still has to take the right actions.

11. A major movement away from trait theories began as early as the 1940s.



Sir Francis Galton: One of the earliest leadership theorists Wrote “Hereditary Genius” pub. 1869. He

believes “leadership qualities were genetic”. This theory assumes physical and psychological

characteristics like basic intelligence, clear and strong values and high personal energy that matters for

effective leadership.

Edwin identified six traits for effective leadership:

1. Need for achievement

2. Intelligence

3. Decisiveness

4. Self-confidence

5. Initiative

6. Supervisory ability



TRAIT APPROACH - People have special qualities that cause them to assume leadership positions in

any situation.

We can also observe following

common traits in the leaders which are very essential for the process of leadership.

• Intelligence

• Dominance

• Self-confidence

• High energy level

• Task relevant knowledge



Behavioral Theories of Leadership:

According to this theory, there are behavioral determinants of leadership which can be learned.

People can be trained to be effective leaders.

Some facts/basis about this behavior theory is given bellow.

1. It was hoped that the behavioral theories would provide more definitive answers.

Personal Characteristics of Leaders

Personal Characteristics

• Energy

• Physical stamina

Intelligence and Ability

• Intelligence, cognitive ability

• Knowledge

• Judgment, decisiveness

Personality

• Self-confidence

• Honesty and integrity

• Enthusiasm

• Desire to lead

• Independence

Social Characteristics

• Sociability, interpersonal skills

• Cooperativeness

• Tact, diplomacy

Work-Related Characteristics

• Drive, desire to excel

• Responsibility in pursuit of

goals

• Persistence against obstacles,

tenacity

Social background

• Education

• Mobility

27

a) If behavioral studies were correct, we could train people to be leaders.

2. We shall briefly reviewed during our lecture three of the most popular studies:

a) Kurt Lewin’s studies at the University of Iowa.

Explored three leadership styles

• autocratic - leader dictated work methods

• democratic - involved employees in decision making

– used feedback to coach employees

• laissez-faire - gave the group complete freedom

– satisfaction higher with democratic leader



b) The Ohio State group.

• identified two dimensions of leadership

– Initiating structure

– Consideration

c) The University of Michigan studies.

– Studied leaders’ behaviors related to worker motivation and group performance

– Identified two dimensions of behavior:

• Job centered (Initiating Structure)

• Employee centered (Showing Consideration)



Are There Identifiable Leadership Behaviors?

1. One of the first studies; Kurt Lewin and his associates at the University of Iowa. Three

leadership behaviors or styles: autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire.

2. An autocratic style tends to centralize authority, dictate work methods, etc.

3. The democratic style tends to involve employees in decision making, delegates authority,

encourages participation in deciding work methods, and uses feedback to coach employees.

a) Further classified: consultative and participative.

b) A democratic-consultative leader seeks input but makes the final decision.

c) A democratic-participative leader often allows employees to have a “say.”

4. The laissez-faire leader generally gives employees complete freedom.

5. Which one of the three leadership styles was most effective?

a) The laissez-faire style was ineffective on every performance criterion.

b) Democratic leadership style could contribute to both quantity and high quality of work.

c) Later studies of autocratic and democratic styles of leadership showed mixed results.

d) Group members’ satisfaction levels were generally higher under a democratic leader.

6. Tannenbaum and Schmidt developed a continuum of leader behaviors.

7. Tannenbaum and Schmidt proposed that managers look at forces within themselves, forces

within the employees, and forces within the situation when choosing their style.

8. Suggested that managers should move toward more employee-centered styles in the long

run.

a) Such behaviors would increase employees’ motivation, decision quality, teamwork,

morale, and development.



Why Were the Ohio State Studies Important?

1. The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral theories.

2. These studies sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior.

3. Beginning with over 1,000 dimensions, they eventually narrowed the list down to two

categories: initiating structure and consideration.

a) Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure

his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment.

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b) Consideration is defined as the extent to which a leader has job relationships

characterized by mutual trust and respect for employees’ ideas and feelings.

4. Research found that a leader high in initiating structure and consideration achieved high

employee performance and satisfaction more frequently than one who rated low on

consideration, initiating structure, or both.

5. However, leader behavior characterized as high on initiating structure led to greater rates of

grievances, absenteeism, and turnover etc., for workers performing routine tasks.

Other studies found that high consideration was negatively related to performance ratings of the

leader by his or her manager.



Leadership Dimensions of the University of Michigan Studies:

1. Two dimensions of leadership behavior, employee oriented and production oriented.

a) Employee-oriented leaders emphasized interpersonal relations, took a personal interest

in employees’ needs, and accepted individual differences among members.

b) The production-oriented leaders emphasized the technical aspects of the job, focused

on accomplishing their group’s tasks, and regarded group members as a means to that

end.

2. The Michigan researchers strongly favored leaders who were employee oriented.



What Did the Behavioral Theories Teach Us about Leadership?

1. Behavioral researchers have had very little success in identifying consistent relationships

between patterns of leadership behavior and successful performance.

2. What was missing, consideration of the situational factors that influence success or failure?



Robert Blake and Jane Mouton

– Developed a managerial grid reflecting Ohio and Michigan dimensions

– The ideal leader has high concern for both production and people



Managerial Grid:

1. A two-dimensional view of leadership style developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton.

a) Based on the styles of “concern for people” and “concern for production.”

b) Essentially represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure

and the Michigan dimensions of employee orientation and production orientation.

2. The grid depicted has nine possible positions along each axis, creating 81 different positions

into which a leader’s style may fall.

3. The grid shows the dominating factors in a leader’s thinking in regard to getting results.

a) The five key positions are focused on the four corners of the grid and a middle-ground

area.

4. Blake and Mouton concluded that managers perform best using a 9,9 style.

5. The grid offers only a framework for conceptualizing leadership style—it offers no answers to the question of what makes an effective leader



CONTINGENCY THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP

Both trait and behavioral theories tried to identify the one best leader or style for all situations. By the late 1960s, it became apparent that there is no such universal answer. Predicting leadership success

involved something more complex than isolating a few traits or preferable behaviors. It was one thing to say that leadership effectiveness depended on the situation and another to be able to isolate situational conditions.

Leadership effectiveness depends on a combination of the:

• Leader

• Followers

• Situational factors

During Last 5-6 decades, more than 65 leadership classification systems have been developed. Most agree that leadership effectiveness depends on the leader, the followers, and situation variables. Leaders in different situations need different interests, values, and skills. A leader in a bank differs from one in a factory. Situational factors include the job performed, the workplace culture, and the overall environment



Leadership results when… the ideas and deeds of the leader match the needs and expectations of the follower in a particular situation e.g. Quaid-e-Azam, Nelson Mandela, Adolf Hitler, Sir Syed Ahmad

Khan.

For leadership to take place, the leader, followers, and situation must match.



The Contingency Approach is based on four assumptions:

• The appropriate leadership style depends on the requirements of the situation.

• Leadership can be learned.

• Successful leadership involves understanding situational contingencies.

• The match between the leader’s style, personality or behavior, and the situation leads to

effectiveness.

Fielder LPC model

•Leadership behaviour assessment

•Situation favourability

•Behaviour-situation match

Path-goal model

•Subordinate characteristics

•Task structure

•Leadership behaviour

•Performance satisfaction

Situational

leadership theory

•Subordinate readiness

•Delegating

•Participating

•Selling

•Telling

Contingency approach

The Fiedler Model

• This is the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership.

• Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style of

interaction and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader.

• Fiedler developed an instrument, the Least-Preferred Co-worker (LPC) questionnaire that

measures the leader’s behavioral orientation— either task oriented or relationship oriented.

• He isolated three situational criteria—leader-member relations, task structure, and position

power—that can be manipulated to create the proper match with the behavioral orientation

of the leader.

• This contingency leadership model is an outgrowth of trait theory.

• Fiedler, however, attempted to isolate situations, relating his personality measure to his

situational classification, and then predicting leadership effectiveness.

• Fiedler believed that an individual’s basic leadership style is a key factor.

• The LPC questionnaire contains 16 contrasting adjectives, asks the respondent to think of

all the co-workers he or she has ever had, and rates that person on a scale of 1 to 8 for each

set of contrasting adjectives.

• What you say about others tells more about you than it tells about the other person.

• If the least-preferred co-worker was described in positive terms (a high LPC score), then the

respondent was primarily interested in good personal relations with co-workers.

• If the least-preferred co-worker is seen in relatively unfavorable terms, the respondent is

primarily interested in productivity and thus would be labeled task oriented.

• Fiedler argued that leadership style is innate to a person—you can’t change your style.

• It is necessary to match the leader with the situation based on three criteria.

• Leader-member relations—The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates

have in their leader.

• Task structure—The degree to which the job assignments of subordinates are structured

or unstructured.

• Position power—The degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring,

firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.

• The next step is to evaluate the situation in terms of these three contingency variables.

• The better the leader-member relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger

the position power, the more control or influence the leader has.

• Fiedler concluded that task-oriented leaders perform best in situations that are very

favorable or very unfavorable to them.

• A moderately favorable situation, however, is best handled through relationship-oriented

leadership.

Situational Leadership Theory:

• Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard developed the leadership model.

• Which is Called situational leadership; it shows how a leader should adjust leadership style

to reflect what followers need.

• A contingency theory that focuses on the followers.

• Successful leadership is contingent on the follower’s level of readiness.

• Why focus on the followers? And what do they mean by the term readiness?

o This emphasis reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leader.

o Regardless of what the leader does, effectiveness depends on the actions of his or her

followers.

• The term “readiness” refers to the extent that people have the ability and the willingness to

accomplish a specific task.

• Hersey and Blanchard identify four specific behaviors.

_ Follower: unable and unwilling

– Leader: needs to give clear and specific directions (Selling).

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_ Follower: unable but willing

– Leader: needs to display high task orientation and high relationship orientation.

(Telling)

_ Follower: able but unwilling

– Leader: needs to use a supportive and participative style. (participating)

_ Follower: both able and willing

– Leader: a lenient approach will work (Delegating)

The most effective behavior depends on a follower’s ability and motivations.

• If a follower is unable and unwilling, the leader needs to display high task orientation.

• At the other end of the readiness spectrum, if followers are able and willing, the leader

doesn’t need to do much.

• Situational leadership has an intuitive appeal—it acknowledges the importance of followers and

builds on the idea that leaders can compensate for the lack of ability and motivation of their

followers.

• Research efforts to test and support the theory have generally been mixed.



Path-Goal Theory:

1. One of the most respected approaches to leadership is path-goal theory.

2. Developed by Robert House, a contingency model of leadership that extracts key elements

from the Ohio State leadership research and the expectancy theory of motivation.

3. The essence of the theory: the leader’s job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and

to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or

organization.

4. A leader’s behavior is acceptable to employees to the degree that they view it as an

immediate source of satisfaction or as a means of future satisfaction.

5. A leader’s behavior is motivational to the degree that it

a) Makes employee need-satisfaction contingent on effective performance.

b) Provides the coaching, guidance, support, and reward necessary for effective

performance.

6. House identified four leadership behaviors;

a) The directive leader tells employees what is expected of them, schedules work, and

gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. It parallels initiating structure.

b) The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for the needs of employees. It is

essentially synonymous with the dimension of consideration.

c) The participative leader consults with employees and uses their suggestions before

making a decision.

d) The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects employees to

perform at their highest levels.

7. In contrast to Fiedler, House assumes that leaders are flexible.

a) Path-goal theory implies that the same leader can display any or all leadership styles,

depending on the situation.

8. path-goal theory proposes two classes of contingency variables:;

a) Those in the environment that are outside the control of the employee (task structure,

the formal authority system, and the work group).

1) Environmental factors determine leader behavior required if employee outcomes

are to be maximized.

b) Those that are part of the personal characteristics of the employee (locus of control,

experience, and perceived ability).

1) Personal characteristics determine how the environment and leader behavior are

interpreted.

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c) The theory proposes that leader behavior will be ineffective when it is redundant to

sources of environmental structure or incongruent with subordinate characteristics.

9. Research to validate path-goal predictions is encouraging, although not all is found

positive.

The majority of the evidence supports the logic underlying the theory.

Path-Goal Leadership Model

Employee

Contingencies

Environmental

Contingencies

Leader

Behaviors

• Directive

• Supportive

• Participative

• Achievementoriented

Leader

Effectiveness

• Motivated

employees

• Satisfied

employees

• Leader

acceptance



A Brief History of Leadership Theory:

I. A Trait Approach (1900-1950s):

Leaders are born, not made.

• The focus of early leadership research was to find personal traits that distinguished leaders

from followers.

• The search was not successful--100s of studies lead to the conclusion that there was no such set

of personal characteristics that by themselves distinguished leaders from non-leaders. A few

traits such as above average intelligence, responsibility, self confidence, and persistence were

associated with leaders, but they are not sufficient explanations.

• Later studies of leadership characteristics led to the conclusion that there were a few general

traits that were associated with effective leadership such as self-confidence, stress tolerance,

emotional maturity, and integrity--but again no trait or set of traits by itself guaranteed leader

effectiveness.

• Both the situation and skill also have a lot to do with leadership effectiveness.



II. A Situational Approach: Leaders are made, not born.

• For a short time in the 1950s sociologists tried to demonstrate that the situation determined

leadership, but they too were unsuccessful.

• Like the trait approach, the situational approach was doomed to failure because it was too

narrow in its view.

• Most contemporary leadership theories now subscribe to the position that traits, behaviors, and

situation interact to determine the effectiveness of a leader.



III. A Contingency Approach

Contemporary approaches to leadership acknowledge the importance of matching the traits and

leadership behavior to situations to maximize effectiveness.

But the thorny questions are what traits or styles with what situations.

What are the basic situations?

What are the basic styles?

What are the matches that lead to effectiveness?



TRANSACTIONAL, CHARISMATIC AND TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP

Effective leaders don’t use a single style; they use many different styles and make adjustments based on

the situation. An important but often overlooked contingency variables is national culture



New Approaches of Leadership: following are the new approaches of leadership;

1. Transactional

2. Charismatic

3. Transformational

First of all we need to understand the difference between Transactional and Transformational

leadership. After this, we will be discussing the Charismatic leadership.



1. Transactional Leadership:

These types of leaders focus on rewards in exchange for motivation, productivity and effective task

accomplishment.

2. Transformational:

These types of leaders focus on influencing attitudes and assumptions of staff. Building commitment to

the mission and always try to achieve the objective of the organisation.



Transactional leaders differ from transformational leaders

• Most of the leadership theories presented in this chapter address the issue of transactional leaders.

• These leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by

clarifying role and task requirements.

• Transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the

organization and are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on his or her followers.

• Transformational leaders pay attention to the concerns and developmental needs of individual

followers; they change followers’ awareness of issues by helping those followers to look at old

problems in new ways; and they are able to excite, arouse, and inspire followers to put out extra

effort to achieve group goals.

• Transactional and transformational leadership are not opposing approaches.

• Transformational leadership is built on transactional leadership.

• Transformational leadership produces higher levels of employee effort and performance.

• It is more than charisma.

• The transformational leader will attempt to instill in followers the ability to question not only

established views but eventually those established by the leader.

• The evidence supporting the superiority of transformational leadership over the transactional

variety is overwhelmingly impressive.

• In summary, the overall evidence indicates that transformational leadership is more strongly correlated with lower turnover rates, higher productivity, and higher employee satisfaction.



Differences:

Categories Transactional Transformational

Leader’s source of power Rank, position Character, competence



Follower reaction Compliance Commitment



Time frame Short term Long term



Rewards Pay, promotion, etc. Pride, self-esteem, etc.



Supervision Important Less important



Counseling focus Evaluation Development



Charismatic Leadership:

Charismatic leaders have a combination of charm and personal magnetism that contribute to a remarkable ability to get other people to endorse to their vision and promote it passionately.



Charisma Defined: Charisma has been defined various ways. Charisma is a Greek word meaning

“divinely inspired gift”. In leadership, charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purposes, powers,

and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others.



Charisma: A Relationship: Key to charismatic leadership is the interaction between leader and group

members. Charismatic qualities must be attributed to the leader by group members and Charismatic

leaders use impression management to cultivate their relationships with group members.

• Charismatic leadership theory is an extension of attribution theory.

• It says that followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they

observe certain behaviors.

• Several authors have attempted to identify personal characteristics of the charismatic leader.

• Robert House has identified three: extremely high confidence, dominance, and strong

convictions.

• Warren Bennis found that they had four common competencies: they had a compelling vision

or sense of purpose; they could communicate that vision in clear terms that their followers

could readily identify with; they demonstrated consistency and focus in the pursuit of their

vision; and they knew their own strengths and capitalized on them.

• Jay Conger and Rabindra Kanungo at McGill University—charismatic leaders have an

idealized goal that they want to achieve and a strong personal commitment to that goal; they are

perceived as unconventional; they are assertive and self-confident; and they are perceived as

agents of radical change rather than as managers of the status quo.

• There is an increasing body of research that shows impressive correlations between charismatic

leadership and high performance and satisfaction among followers.

• Charismatic leadership may be most appropriate when the follower’s task has an ideological

component.

• Second, charismatic leaders may be ideal for pulling an organization through a crisis but

become a liability to an organization once the crisis and the need for dramatic change subside.



Trait of a Charismatic Leader:

_ Self-confidence

_ A vision

_ Strong conviction in that vision

_ Out of the ordinary behavior

_ The image of a change agent

Followers feelings towards

Charismatic Leaders

• High Trust

• Obedience

• Emotional involvement

• Satisfaction

• Self-esteem

• Motivation

• Belief in likeliness of success

Two Types of Charismatic Leaders:

Visionary Leadership:

• Visionary leadership goes beyond charisma. Visionary leadership is the ability to create and articulate a realistic, credible, attractive vision of the future for an organization or organizational unit that grows out of and improves upon the present.

• A vision differs from other forms of direction setting in several ways:

• “A vision has clear and compelling imagery that offers an innovative way to improve, which recognizes and draws on traditions, and connects to actions that people can take to realize change.”

• Vision taps people’s emotions and energy.

• The key properties of a vision seem to be inspirational possibilities that are value centered, realizable, with superior imagery and articulation.

• Visions should be able to create possibilities that are inspirational, unique, and offer a new order that can produce organizational distinction.

• Desirable visions fit the times and circumstances and reflect the uniqueness of the organization.

• People in the organization must also believe that the vision is attainable.



Crisis-Based Charismatic Leaders:

The crisis-produced charismatic leader communicates clearly what actions need to be taken and what their consequences will be in the crisis.



Transformational v. Charismatic Leaders:

Some experts say yes, transformation and charismatic are

same but emerging view is that:

_ Charisma is distinct from transformational leadership

_ A personal trait that might help transform, or might just help the leader

_ Charismatic leadership might have opposite effect -- creates dependence, not empowerment

THE LEADER AS AN INDIVIDUAL

We tried to explain during last couple of sessions the theoretically background and approaches to

understand this process of leadership. In this lecture we will shift our focus to leader as an individual

and try to understand the personality and person part of that individual known as “a leader”. To

understand this let’s try to start from basic personality part.

Personality:

Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. Personality is determined by nature (biological heritage) and nurture (situational factors).

Organizational outcomes that have been shown to be predicted by personality include job satisfaction, work stress, and leadership effectiveness. Personality is not a useful predictor of organizational

outcomes when there are strong situational constraints. Because personality tends to be stable over time, managers should not expect to change personality in the short run. Leaders should accept

employees’ personalities as they are and develop effective ways to deal with people. To understand leader we need to understand him/her as individual. For this understanding personality indicator is very important.



The Nature of Personality:

People’s personalities can be described in a variety of ways: 1).

Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. 2). Personality is an important factor in accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they have favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations.



Some Major Forces Influencing Personality:

Personality Determinants: An early argument centered on whether or not personality was the result of heredity or of environment. Personality appears to be a result of both influences. Today, we recognize a third factor—the situation.



Situation

�� Influences the effects of heredity and environment on personality

�� The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one’s personality.

�� There is no classification scheme that tells the impact of various types of situations.

�� Situations seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behavior.



Heredity

Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception.

�� The heredity approach argues that the ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes, located in the chromosomes.

�� Three different streams of research lend some credibility to the heredity argument:

• The genetic underpinnings of human behavior and temperament among young children.



Evidence demonstrates that traits such as shyness, fear, and distress are most likely caused by inherited genetic characteristics.

• One hundred sets of identical twins that were separated at birth were studied. Genetics accounts for about 50 percent of the variation in personality differences and over 30 percent of occupational and leisure interest variation.

• Individual job satisfaction is remarkably stable over time. This indicates that satisfaction is determined by something inherent in the person rather than by external environmental factors.

• Personality characteristics are not completely dictated by heredity. If they were, they would be fixed at birth and no amount of experience could alter them.

37



Environment

�� Factors that exert pressures on our personality formation:

�� The culture in which we are raised

�� Early conditioning

�� Norms among our family

�� Friends and social groups

�� The environment we are exposed to plays a substantial role in shaping our personalities.

�� Culture establishes the norms, attitudes, and values passed from one generation to the next and

create consistencies over time.

�� The arguments for heredity or environment as the primary determinant of personality are both

important.

�� Heredity sets the parameters or outer limits, but an individual’s full potential will be determined by

how well he or she adjusts to the demands and requirements of the environment.



Variables Influencing Individual Behavior

Personality is the function of “The Person” and “The Environment. In other words it is a Person-

Situation Interaction.

Relationship of different components in behaviour is show in the following slide.



Types of work-related behaviour:

Values: Values Represent Basic Convictions

• A specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to

an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.

• They have both content and intensity attributes.

• An individual’s set of values ranked in terms of intensity is considered the person’s value system.

• Values have the tendency to be stable.

• Many of our values were established in our early years from parents, teachers, friends, and others.

Importance of Values

�� Values lay the foundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation.

�� Values generally influence attitudes and behaviors. We can predict reaction based on understanding values.



Attitudes:

Attitudes are evaluative statements that are either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people, or events. Attitudes are not the same as values, but the two are interrelated.



Main Components of Attitudes:

There are three components of an attitude

• Cognitive component

�� The employee thought he deserved the promotion (cognitive)

• Affective component

�� The employee strongly dislikes his supervisor (affective)

• Behavioral component

�� The employee is looking for another job (behavioral). In organizations, attitudes are important because of the behavioral component



How Consistent Are Attitudes?

�� People sometimes change what they say so it does not contradict what they do.

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�� Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior.

�� Individuals seek to reconcile divergent attitudes and align their attitudes and behavior so they appear rational and consistent.

�� When there is an inconsistency, forces are initiated to return the individual to an equilibrium state where attitudes and behavior are again consistent, by altering either the attitudes or the behavior, or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy.

�� Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Leon Festinger, in the late 1950s, proposed the theory of cognitive dissonance, seeking to explain the linkage between attitudes and behavior. He argued that any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance.

Dissonance means “an inconsistency.”

�� Cognitive dissonance refers to “any incompatibility that an individual might perceive between two or more of his/her attitudes, or between his/her behavior and attitudes. “

�� No individual can completely avoid dissonance.

�� The desire to reduce dissonance would be determined by:

• The importance of the elements creating the dissonance. Importance: If the elements creating the dissonance are relatively unimportant, the pressure to correct this imbalance will be low.

• The degree of influence the individual believes he/she has over the elements. Influence:

If the dissonance is perceived as an uncontrollable result, they are less likely to be receptive to attitude change. While dissonance exists, it can be rationalized and justified.

• The rewards that may be involved in dissonance. Rewards: The inherent tension in high dissonance tends to be reduced with high rewards.

• Moderating factors suggest that individuals will not necessarily move to reduce dissonance.

ATTITUDE-PERSONALITY

In lecture 12, we started understanding leader as individual. Continuing from previous lecture, to understand individual knowing the basis of behavior of individuals is very important.

Why is it important to know an individual’s values? Although Values strongly influence a person’s perception, attitudes and ultimately the behavior; Knowledge of an individual’s value system can provide insight into his/her attitudes. Leaders should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes give warnings of potential

problems and because they influence behavior. Satisfied and committed employees, for instance, have lower rates of turnover and absenteeism. Work attitudes are collections of feelings, beliefs, and thoughts about how to behave that people currently hold about their jobs and organizations.

a. Work attitudes are more specific than values, and not as long lasting.

b. Two work attitudes that have important implications for organizational behavior are “job satisfaction” and “organizational commitment”.

Job Satisfaction:

It refers to a collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. A high level of job satisfaction brings positive attitudes toward the job and vice versa. Employee attitudes and job satisfaction are frequently used interchangeably. Often when people speak of “employee attitudes” they mean “employee job satisfaction. Other definition, a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience Jobs require interaction with coworkers and bosses, following organizational rules and policies,

meeting performance standards, living with working conditions that are often less than ideal. This means that an employee’s assessment of how satisfied or dissatisfied he or she is with his/her job is a

complex summation of a number of discrete job elements. Four factors affect the level of job satisfaction a person experiences: personality, values, the work situation, and social influence.



Personality: Personality, the enduring ways a person has of feeling, thinking, and behaving, is the first determinant of how people think and feel about their jobs or job satisfaction.

a. Researchers have found that genetic factors accounted for about 30 percent of the differences in levels of job satisfaction across respondents in a study of twins.

b. The study suggested that people seek out jobs that are suited to their genetic make up.

c. Implications for managers include the suggestion that part of job satisfaction is determined by employees’ personalities, which an organization or manager cannot change in the short run.

d. However, since 70 percent (as indicated in the twins study) of the variation in job satisfaction remains on other factors, managers/leaders should focus on change or influence in this area.



Values:

Values have an impact on levels of job satisfaction because they reflect employees’ convictions about the outcomes that work should lead to and how one should behave at work.



Work Situation:

Perhaps the most important source of job satisfaction is the work situation itself, the tasks a person performs (for example, how interesting or boring they are), the people, a jobholder interacts with (customers, subordinates, supervisors), the surroundings in which a person works (noise level, crowdedness, temperature), and the way the organization treats the jobholder (working hours, job security, the extent to which pay and benefits are generous or fair).



Organizational Citizenship Behavior: When one think of organization beyond their official responsibility. People start owning the organization and start caring about it beyond the legal or job

requirements.

It seems logical to assume that job satisfaction should be a major determinant of an employee’s organizational citizenship behavior. More recent evidence, however, suggests that satisfaction

influences organizational citizenship behavior, but through perceptions of fairness. There is a modest overall relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior.

Basically, job satisfaction comes down to conceptions of fair outcomes, treatment, and procedures. When you trust your employer, you are more likely to engage in behaviors that go beyond your formal job requirements.



Organizational Commitment: A state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals.



Affective Commitment: Emotional attachment to the organization and belief in its values.



Continuance Commitment: Value of remaining with an organization compared to alternatives. Can’t afford to leave the organization.



Normative Commitment:

Obligation to remain with the organization for moral or ethical reasons.

• Conditions that enhance:

– Job satisfaction (strong, positive relationship)

– Participation

– Job security

– Job characteristics (autonomy, responsibility, interesting work)

• Advantages:

– Lower absenteeism, lower turnover, higher quality, higher productivity, higher performance An individual’s level of organizational commitment is a better indicator of turnover than the far more frequently used job satisfaction predictor because it is a more global and enduring response to the organization as a whole than is job satisfaction.



Job Satisfaction and Absenteeism:

We find a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction

and absenteeism. The more satisfied you are, the less likely you are to miss work. It makes sense that dissatisfied employees are more likely to miss work, but other factors have an impact on the

relationship and reduce the correlation coefficient. For example, you might be a satisfied worker, yet still take a “mental health” to head for the beach now and again.



Job Satisfaction and Turnover: Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover, but the correlation is stronger than what we found for absenteeism. Other factors such as labor market conditions,

expectations about alternative job opportunities, and length of tenure with the organization are important constraints on the actual decision to leave one’s current job.



Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: Leader’s interest in job satisfaction tends to center on its effect on employee performance. Much research has been done on the impact of job satisfaction on

employee job performance, absenteeism, and turnover. Happy workers are not necessarily productive workers—the evidence suggests that productivity is likely to lead to satisfaction. At the organization level, there is renewed support for the original satisfaction-performance relationship. It seems

organizations with more satisfied workers as a whole are more productive organizations.



Individual Behavior-Perception: Perception is the process by which individuals select, organize, and interpret the input from their senses (vision, hearing, touch, smell, and taste) to give meaning and order

to the world around them. Interpretation of a situation is known as perception. Through perception, people try to make sense of their environment and the objects, events, and other people in it. Play major role on the behaviors of the people.

• Perception has three components:

o The perceiver is the person trying to interpret some observation that he or she has just made, or the input from his or her senses.

41

o The target of perception is whatever the perceiver is trying to make sense of. In organizational behavior, we are often concerned with person perception, or another person as the target of perception.

o The situation is the context in which perception takes place.

Characteristics of all three components influence what is actually perceived



Impression Management: Self-presentation---is the process by which people attempt to manage or control the perceptions other form of them. Impression management is an attempt to control the

perceptions or impressions of others.

a. Just as a perceiver actively constructs reality through his or her perceptions, target of perception can also play an active role in managing the perceptions that others have of him or her.

b. People in organizations use several impression management tactics to affect how others perceive them.

c. Five common impression management tactics are:

1. Behavior matching.

2. Self-promotion.

3. Conforming to situational norms.

4. Appreciating or flattering others.

5. Being consistent.

Conforming to situational norms—the informal rules of behavior that most members of an organizational follow is a particularly important Impression Management tactic.



People differ in the extent to which they conform to situational norms and engage in other forms of impression management.

Conforming to situational norms can often be difficult for people operating in the international arena.

Common courtesies and gestures that are taken for granted in one culture or country may be frowned on or downright insulting in another.

People are likely to engage in impression management when they are likely to benefit from it.



Self-presentation: Is the process by which people attempt to manage or control the perceptions other form of them.



Employee Impression Management Strategies

_ Demotion-preventative strategies

_ Accounts

_ Apologies

_ Disassociation

_ Promotion-enhancing strategies

_ Entitlement

_ Enhancement

_ Obstacles disclosures

_ Association



Individual as the Independent and Interdependent

Relationship of Culture and the Self is also very important to understand the behavior of individuals.

Collectivism and individualism are the two examples.



Collectivism:

Giving priority to the goals of one’s group and defining one’s identity accordingly. The emphasis is on

harmony and blending in.

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Individualism:

Giving priority to personal goals and defining one’s identity accordingly. The emphasis is on

uniqueness and standing out.



Personality Traits

Locus of Control defines whether a person places the primary responsibility for what happens to him or

her within himself/herself or on outside forces. People differ in how much control they believe they have

over the situation they are in and over what happens to them. The locus of control trait captures the difference

between individuals who seem in control and those who are not.

• Externals, individuals with an external locus of control, tend to believe that outside forces are largely

responsible for their fate, and they see little connection between their own actions and what happens to

them.

• Internals, individuals with an internal locus of control, think that their own actions and behaviors have

an impact in determining what happens to them.

In organizations, internals are more easily motivated than externals and do not need as much direct

supervision because they are more likely to believe that their work behaviors influence important outcomes

such as how well they perform their jobs, and the pay increases, praise, job security, and promotions they

receive.



Authoritarianism:

The degree to which leaders believe in authoritarianism will influence how they use

their power and how they expect subordinates to behave in response. People who are high in

authoritarianism would show respect for titles, formal authority, status and rank.



Dogmatism: receptiveness to others’ ideas and opinions. Highly dogmatic people are close minded and not

receptive to others’ ideas.



Self-Esteem: Self-esteem is the extent to which people have pride in themselves and their capabilities.

Individuals with high self-esteem think they are generally capable and worthy people who can deal with most

situations. Individuals with low self-esteem question their self-worth, doubt their capabilities, and are

apprehensive about their ability to succeed in different endeavors. Self-esteem influences people’s choices of

activities and jobs. In self esteem, challenges and goals are impacted.

Positive self-esteem is credited with:

• Enhancing performance.

• Increasing the likelihood of success.

• Fueling motivation.



Type A and Type B Personalities: Individuals who are Type A have an intense desire to achieve, are extremely competitive, have a sense of urgency, are impatient, and can be hostile. Because these individuals

are so driven, they can be difficult to get along with. These individuals, though they have the drive to accomplish, do not do well in situations that require a lot of interaction with others. These individuals are more likely to have more conflicts.. Type B individuals are more relaxed and easygoing. Type B characterized as easy-going, relaxed, and able to listen carefully and communicate more precisely than Type-A individual.



Positive Affect - an individual’s tendency to highlight the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general



Negative Affect - an individual’s tendency to highlight the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general



Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI):

A series of questions that ask people to indicate their

preferred way of acting, thinking, or feeling in different situations. This is a One of the most widely

used personality frameworks. It is a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel

or act in particular situations.

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Individuals are classified as

_ Introversion/Extroversion (E or I)

_ Sensing/Intuitive (S or N)

_ Feeling/Thinking (F or T)

_ Perceiving/Judging (P or J)

These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:



INTJs are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn.

_ ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural head for business or mechanics.

_ The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but

may neglect routine assignments.

_ We will discuss in detail about MBTI during our next lecture.



Self-Monitoring: Self-monitoring (SM): is the extent to which people try to control the way they present

themselves to others.



High SM: High self monitors want their behavior to be socially acceptable and so are attuned to any

social cues that signal appropriate behavior in a situation. The opposite is true for low self-monitors. High

self-monitors tend to perform well in sales positions or consulting.



Low SM: low self monitors are not as vigilant to situational cues and act from internal states

rather than paying attention to the situation and are useful when open, honest feedback is needed.

• High Self Monitors

– flexible: adjust behavior

according to the

situation and the

behavior of others

– can appear

unpredictable &

inconsistent

– Good in teams

– Accept feedback well

• Low Self Monitors

– act from internal

states rather than

from situational cues

– Consistent, but may

also be resistant to

change

– less likely to respond

to work group norms

or supervisory

feedback



Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty. Things that affect OCB may be:

�� Job Satisfaction

�� Procedural justice

It helps to explain why individual level job satisfaction is related to organizational performance.

BIG FIVE MODEL, MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR (MBTI)

Continuing from previous lectures, we are still at personality part of individuals. One can ask question



is Personality Stable?

Behavior is a function of the situation and the person in the situation

People’s personalities can be described in a variety of ways.1). Personality is the pattern of relatively enduring ways in which a person feels, thinks, and behaves. 2). Personality is an important factor in accounting for why employees act the way they do in organizations and why they have favorable or unfavorable attitudes toward their jobs and organizations. Behavioral and social-cognitive theories: Reciprocal determinism: the person, the person’s behavior,

and the environment all influence one another. Organizational Culture, Values, beliefs, attitudes and assumptions put into Action through behavior. To understand it better, we need discuss other models on this subject.

The Big Five Model of Personality:

An impressive body of research supports that five basic dimensions underlie all other personality dimensions. The five basic dimensions are:



Extraversion: Comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Interesting in getting ahead, Leading through influencing, Individuals are outgoing; Likes to

meet new people and willing to confront others. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.



Agreeableness: Individual’s propensity to defer to others. High agreeableness people—cooperative, warm, and trusting. Traits related to getting along with others. Characteristics include warm, easygoing,

compassionate, friendly, and sociable. Individuals typically are sociable and have lots of friends. Low agreeableness people—cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.



Conscientiousness: A measure of reliability. A high conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Includes traits related to achievement. Traits include high credibility,

conformity, and organization. Individuals typically work hard and put in extra time and effort to meet goals. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.



Emotional stability: A person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. The fine line between stable and unstable. Stable is being

calm, good under pressure, relaxed, and secure. Unstable is nervous, poor under pressure, insecure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.



Openness to experience: The range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Trait related to being willing to change and try new

things. Individuals typically are willing to take calculated risks. Those at the other end of the openness category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.



What the MBTI?

MBTI is an inventory of preferences for behavior and not a diagnostic psychological test for identifying dysfunction or abilities. It tells you about your preferences for orienting yourself in the world, and for gathering information and making decisions.



Katharine Briggs & Isabel Myers, mother-daughter team developed Jung’s types into the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). There are four categories, each with two sub-categories are as follows;



The 4 dimensions: Personality type dependent on 4 dimensions: It is a 100-question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in particular situations. Individuals are classified as:

1. Extroverted or introverted (E or I).

2. Sensing or intuitive (S or N).

3. Thinking or feeling (T or F).

4. Perceiving or judging (P or J).

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These classifications are then combined into sixteen personality types. For example:

�� INTJs are visionaries. They usually have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. They are characterized as skeptical, critical, independent, determined, and often stubborn.

�� ESTJs are organizers. They are realistic, logical, analytical, decisive, and have a natural head for business or mechanics.

�� The ENTP type is a conceptualizer. He or she is innovative, individualistic, versatile, and attracted to entrepreneurial ideas. This person tends to be resourceful in solving challenging problems but may neglect routine assignments. But also keep in your mind that each pair is of preferences for behavior. They are not measures of

ability.



History:

• 1920’s – Carl Jung posits that there are underlying personality types

• 1940’s – Katharine Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers build on Jung’s work and create the MBTI

test

• 1970’s – Serious work to link MBTI types to careers, love matches, etc.

• Today – MBTI widely used in educational, corporate settings



Jung’s Core Idea in Psychological Types: When your mind is active, one of two mental activities is occurring:

�� Perceiving - taking in information

�� Judging - organizing that information & reaching conclusions

Sub-Categories Defined

• Focus Attention:

– Extraversion - direct & receive energy from outer world

– Introversion - direct & receive energy from inner world

• Take in Data:

– Sensing - data from the five senses

– iNtuition - data from perception of meaning; gut-feeling

• Make Decisions:

– Thinking - logical, objective, analytical approach

– Feeling - value-centered, subjective (likes & dislikes)

• Orientation to Outer World:

– Judging - live ordered, structured, planned lives

– Perceiving - flexible, spontaneous orientation

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MBTI Applications in Organizations:

• Management/career development

• Interpersonal communications skills

• Decision making/problem solving styles

• Management/leadership styles

• Organizational change

• Teambuilding

• Handling Diversity

• Conflict management



Energy

Extraversion Introversion

The Extraverted person directs and receives

energy from the outside world.

The Introverted person directs and receives

energy from the inner world.

prefers action over reflection prefers reflection over action

prefers oral communication prefers written communication

shares thoughts freely guards thoughts until they are (almost) perfect

acts and responds quickly reflects and thinks deeply

enjoys working in groups enjoys working alone or with only one or two others



Energy Source:

Extravert Introvert

Talkative Meditative

Open Reserved

External Internal

With a group Alone

Talks first Thinks first



Information Gathering:

Sensing iNtuition

The Sensing person prefers to gather

information in a precise and exact manner.

The iNtuitive person prefers to gather

information in an inspired or novel manner.

Likes specific examples Likes general concepts

Prefers following an agenda Departs from the agenda if necessary

Emphasizes the practical Emphasizes the theoretical

Seeks predictability Desires change

Sees difficulties as problems

that need specific solutions

Sees difficulties as opportunities

for further exploration

Focuses on immediate applications of a

situation

Focuses on future possibilities

of a situation

Wants to know what is Wants to know what could be

Information Gathering

Sensors Intuitors

Facts Possibilities

Present Future

Tangible Abstract

Practical Imaginative

5 Senses “6th Sense”

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Decision Making:

Thinking Feeling

A Thinking person seeks general truths and

objectivity when making decisions.

A Feeling person seeks individual and interpersonal harmony when making decisions.

questions first accepts first knows when reason is needed knows when support is needed wants things to be logical Wants things to be pleasant remains detached when making decisions remains personally involved when making decisions controls the expression of feelings expresses feeling with enthusiasm overlooks people in favor of tasks overlooks tasks in favor of people



Decision Making

Thinkers Feelers

Objective Subjective

Impersonal Interpersonal

Justice Mercy

Why Who

Head Heart



Lifestyle:

Judging Perceiving..

The Judging person likes to come to closure

and act on a decision.

The Perceiving person prefers to remain open

and adapt to new information.

Likes things to be settled and ordered Likes things to be flexible and open

Finishes tasks before the deadline Finishes tasks at the deadline

Focuses on goals, results, and achievements Focuses on processes, options, and openings

Establishes deadlines Dislikes deadlines

Prefers no surprises Enjoys surprises

Quickly commits to plans or decisions Reserves the right to change plans or decisions



Life Style:

Judgers Spontaneous /Perceiver

Decisive Curious

Definite Optional

Deadline Guideline

Closure Open-ended

Now Later



The MBTI Sub-Categories:

_ Extraversion -------------------- Introversion



E I

_ Sensing ---------------------------- iNtuition



S N

_ Thinking ---------------------------- Feeling



T F

_ Judging --------------------------- Perceiving



J P

There are no “good” or “bad” type’s only different types. Each preference type has a contribution to

make to effective teamwork. Each needs the opportunity to make a contribution based upon strengths.

SITUATIONAL FACTORS

We understand that leadership is a process and not a position. Three components playing important role in this process are leader, followers and situation. In this lecture, we tried to explain this important component/part of leadership process. Situation is the environment or circumstances in which an individual performs.

Following are the factors that can influence the situation;

_ Task Type: the nature of the work or assignment can also effect the employees

_ Structure of organization: The organization structure always depend on the size of the organization. If the structure will be more rigid, more complexities faced by the employees

_ Stress: Stress in the environment and intensity under which team, organization, or leaders are working also play important role in leadership process and also situation itself.

_ Environment: The environment itself effect on the situation prevails in the organization. The micro (internal factors) and the macro (external factors) always keep on changing, so that this is

big challenge for the leaders to keep the close eyes on changing environment and make decisions accordingly..



Situational factors influence the leadership process:

_ Size of the organization

_ Organizational life cycle stage

_ Social and psychological climate

_ Patterns of employment

_ Type, place, and purpose of work performed

_ Culture of the organization

_ Over all environment

_ Leader-follower interaction

_ Leader-follower compatibility

_ Compatibilities within the followers



Size of the organization:

Size of the organization varies organization to organization and its operations and activities in which organization involve. An organization’s size demands certain types of leadership skills which help to provide right direction. Following two type of leadership, we can see in the organization;



Leaders of small organizations: can be in the form of salespeople, marketing manager and production managers. These leaders organize the system, assign the task, coach the team and evaluate the system.

The small organizations have a flexible system and flatter structure. The approach of the small organization is more entrepreneurs.



Leaders of large organizations: In the large organization, the main focus will be on to create public image and future investment plans. The system of the large organization will be more procedural and structure of the large organization will also be more rigid and more complex because of its operations and activities.

Differences between Large and Small Organizations

LARGE SMALL

Economies of scale Flexible

Global reach Regional reach

Complex Simple

Flat structure

Entrepreneurs

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Changes with size

• Formalization increases

• Centralization decreases

• Complexity increases

– Vertical

– Horizontal

• Personnel Ratios

– Top administration Decreases

– Clerical Ratio Increases

– Professional Staff Ratio Increases



Growth Rates

• When organizations are growing

– Administration grows faster

• When organizations are shrinking

– Administration shrinks more slowly



Organizational life cycle stage:

Every organization has its own life cycle. Which always start from its birth and end with its decline. To save from decline, most of the organization introduces new products and new paths etc.



Birth Growth Shakeout Maturity

Non-bureaucratic Pre-bureaucratic Bureaucratic Very bureaucratic



Social and psychological climate:

Every organization has its own climate of working and environment in which the employees works together. Different factors that influence the organizations climate;

_ Confusion

_ Anxiety

_ Conflicts

_ Mistrust

_ Stress

_ Politics



These factors also play their role on the formulation of situation and ultimately the leadership process.

Patterns of employment:

In today’s organization the pattern of the employees also varies from organization to organization. We can now see the permanent or temporary and Short-term or Long-term employees. So it also effects the situation of the organization. Today’s people need more job security and befits instead of their services. And organizations are facing more challenges in shape of changing the external environment. So it is another challenge for leadership to create a congenial working environment for satisfaction of employees.



Type, place, and purpose of work performed:

The type of work is an important factor. The Work duties should be clear–cut. The routine or monotonous work could create hostile working environment. Many researcher claims that in today’s

organization work duties loosely defined which always cause de-motivation and stress.



Culture of the organization:

The system of shared values and beliefs held by organizational members or the system of the shared values norms and behavior that held by the top management is called organizational culture. All

organizations have their own cultures;

_ Culture by default: means the culture already exists from the birth of organization.

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_ Culture by design: means the culture exists according to its operations and structure.



The Observable Evidence of the organizational culture is;

_ Symbols

_ Ceremonies

_ Stories

_ Behaviors

_ Language

_ Dress



The bottom line is Culture permeates org. behavior BUT Very hard to observe or quantify



Types of Organizational Cultures

• Control cultures

• Collaboration cultures

• Competence cultures

• Cultivation cultures



Culture’s Effects on Behavior

Culture effects on behaviors during Communication, Cooperation, Commitment, Decision Making,

Implementation, and Leadership style etc.



Organizational Climate:

Organizational Climate is an important dimension that clearly determines organizational climate and environment. An organization should have a reward system to motivate its employee and linked with

the performance. A transparent unbiased system in which employees feel satisfied. The standard of the performance should clearly define to the employee and same for each category and related with job

description. A congenial and supportive working environment should prevails in the organization for the increasing the productivity of the organization.



Over all environment: The organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization that have the potential to affect the way it operates and its access to scarce resources. Basically

organization environment has two dimensions internal and external. This can also be known as Macro and Micro factors or even General Environment and Task Environment. All these factors/forces do

affect the leadership process.



Leader-follower interaction:

For running an organization successfully there is need of leader-followers interaction. There should be Leader-follower compatibility for working together in the organization. Proper communication and

confidence on each other is very essential for trust and performance.

Similarly, Leader-follower compatibility and Compatibilities within the followers is also very important for particular situation. All above factor affecting directly or indirectly the situation and ultimately the leadership process.

BECOMING A LEADER! WHAT DOES IT MEAN & HOW DO YOU GET IT?

Leadership is the exercise of influence by one member of a group or organization over other members to help the group or organization achieve its goals. Formal leaders have formal authority to influence

others by virtue of their job/position responsibilities. Informal leaders lack formal authority but influence others by virtue of their special skills or talents.

Becoming a Leader:

The leaders of a group, team or organization are the individuals who influence others behavior. Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help a group, team or organization to achieve

its goals. Leaders are either appointed by someone external to the group and they are elected by group members themselves. Some people take up role of leader by using their influences. With the passage of time, you can see that leadership will emerge over time. The group members will assess with in the group that who is leader worthy. In this situation, communication style will play a dynamic role. A group member can become a leader if he or she has following qualities/skills;

_ Think like a leader

_ Develop your judgment

_ Build leadership traits

_ Build your power base

_ Share your vision

_ Adapt your style

_ Pick the right followers

_ Organize tasks properly



Foundations of Leadership:

Vision:

Leaders must have, and be able to communicate a vision. Leaders must make the followers see what the organization can become and the success that can be achieved. A Leader must be effective that actually does help a group, team or organization to achieve its goals. An effective leader helps achieve goals. An ineffective leader does not.



Mission Statement:

Every organization needs a mission statement, which is a statement of the purpose of an organization. The mission statement addresses the question: What is the organization’s reason for being in business? It broadly outlines the organization’s future course and communicates “who we are, what we do, and where we are headed. Mission Statement describes purpose of the organization;

_ WHAT – is expected to be achieved

_ WHY – is it worthwhile

_ HOW – it can be done

_ Defines Core Values



Objectives:

Objectives are desired outcomes for individuals, groups, team or entire organizations. The leaders have to provide objectives--specific results that he or she wants the group to achieve. Planning is the first

management function, but by providing direction, a manager becomes a leader.

Direction:

A leader must provide a direction for achievement of the objectives to his or her followers that can work toward. A vision is especially important in today’s volatile business environment.



Steps to Leadership: The following are the key steps to leadership:

_ Identify what is happening (identifying areas requiring leadership)

_ Account for what is happening using behavior science theories and concepts

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_ Formulate leader actions based on your knowledge of how to motivate employees and how to resolve and manage inter-group conflicts



Leading: Leaders must choose a style to suit the situation in organization to achieve the goals;

_ Employee oriented: a leader may have an employee oriented style for its effective working with in the group and team.

_ Participative: a leader may have participative style to motivate other group members to involve in other organizational activities or to motivate employees to support each other in the achievement of

organizational goals.

_ Job centered: a leader may have job centered style to play a hub role in the organization.

_ Autocratic: a leader may have autocratic style according to the organizational environment exits.



The other factors also play a dynamic role to achieve the organizational role. A leader must;



Influence organization culture: as we know that the culture is the set of values, norms and beliefs define by the organization environment or management, a leader must influence on the organizational

culture for making a congenial working environment.



Motivate: Motivation is a frequently used but poorly understood in term dynamics. There are over 140 definitions of the term motivation that have been used in various capacities. Motivation is important because it explains why employees behave as they do. Leaders need to understand this so that they must

motivate the employees towards the organizational goals.



Influence communication: Communication is one of the most important processes that take place in organizations. Effective communication allows individuals, groups, teams and organizations to achieve their goals and perform at a high level, and it affects virtually every aspect of organizational behavior.

Communication is good or effective when members of organization share information with each other and all parties involved are relatively clear about what information means. So leader must focus on the organizational communication. Good communication prevents many problems from occurring and serves the following functions in an organization.



Influence the group: A leader must have influence on the group or team to achieve the organizational goals. If the leader loses the influence on group or team he or she me lose the game.



Have leadership traits and power: There are so many traits of leader ship which can not be explained and varies from person to person and style to style? But each leader must make sure the achievement of organizational goals in a best way.



Three competency of a Leader: there are three competency of leader;



Leading the Organization:

Leading the organization and put the organization on right path through setting vision, direction and strategy. They also involve in problem solving and decision making. They keenly observe the

prevailing politics in the organization and influence other team members. Leaders always try to create a change culture in the organization. For this purpose they take the risks and innovates the new things in the organization by enhancing business skills and knowledge.



Leading others:

One of the leader’s competencies is leading and managing others. In the organization, a leader manages the effective teams and groups for achievement of organizational objectives by building and

maintaining a working relationship between them. They motivate other and build the trust on team members. One of the major tasks of leader is to develop other, which is more important factor. They set

a reward system in the organization and mostly link it with the performance or achievement of goals.



Leading oneself:

This is also very important to leading one self. It is the responsibility of the leader to adopt the changes prevails in the environment. They also increase the self awareness for himself that what is going on in the surroundings of the organization. They always try to lean as more as they can. They also develop the culture of ethics and integrity with in the organization.

Developing adaptability, increasing self-awareness, managing yourself, increasing capacity to learn, exhibiting leadership stature, displaying drive and purpose, developing ethics and integrity.

Leaders always know about their strengths, weakness, opportunities, challenges and know who they are as an individual. They also know that “Positions do not possess leadership characteristics, only people possess leadership characteristics.”



“Leadership is not a matter of luck. The harder you work, the luckier you are.”

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